Yet, looking at the current situation in China, there is a sense of acute presence and vividness in the various regions, artistic communities, and levels of artistic practice. Socialist Realism in Russia and elsewhere maintained the naturalistic style and (superficially at least) the egalitarian impetus of this older movement. In March 1933, the Chinese Communist Party Cultural Council established an underground film group run by Xia Yan, Qian Xingcun, Wang Chenwu, Shi Linghe and Situ Huimin. The art and discussions of art cultivated within this system have taken permanent residence in mainstream formats such as textbooks, mass media and museums. Role models are used to teach people the desired attitude. The attention fixed on them has not shifted to their work, despite the passage of time. First, according to historian Gao Hua, art discourse has been profoundly shaped by two narrative types that have occupied a definitive position in modern Chinese history: the ‘revolutionary narrative’ and the ‘modernisation narrative’. The painters who took part in this exhibition began by establishing the Beijing Oil Painting Research Group. They emerged from the old realist education, but this expressive form was more connected to the artists’ pursuits, particularly to the cultural appeals of the cultural ferment of the 1980s and a new generation of cultured people.19. A China, desde o século XIX, era considerada “quintal do mundo”. In 1935, after Wu Yinxian and Xu Xingzhi’s work was displayed at the Photography and Painting exhibition, Xia Yan approached Xu Xingzhi, suggesting that both photographers move from Unique Film Productions to the Diantong Film Company to film the movie Sons and Daughters in a Time of Storm, based on a script by Tian Han. As the revolution progressed and the Communist Party further defined Socialist Realism, it gradually evolved from an artistic style into an ideology with a clear viewpoint; it became the clothing of ideology, as well as ideology itself. This appeal for artistic and cultural modernisation has been the embodiment of Chinese intellectuals’ sense of duty to nation and society since the early twentieth century. After these developments, the Chinese Communist Party carried out party-wide Marxism-Leninism pedagogic movements in 1942, 1950 and 1957 to solidify Mao’s absolute leadership. Socialist Realism became a fundamental art principle in the countries of Eastern Europe (Romania, Bulgaria, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Poland) and Far East (China, Vietnam, North Korea). The former continued with traditional Chinese painting, woodcutting, and oil painting rooted in Russian Socialist Realism. Gao Hua believes that because the ‘revolutionary narrative’ is rooted in an era of revolutionary struggle, it is marked by strong tones of political mobilisation. It's a collection of socialist realism artworks from different eras. This narrative uses the global and universal historical process of modernisation to describe the modernisation process that China carried out under strong influence from other countries, using it to expound upon China’s experiences and lessons that span over a century. The reading public was bestowed with intangible political rights and critical authority. The ruling party has always managed to grasp the standards of what kind of art is possible and has allowed certain artistic gestures of defiance to be exhibited. If everyone agrees on the fundamental policy, it should be adhered to by all our workers, all our schools, publications and organisations in the field of literature and art and in all our literary and artistic activities. Socialist realism is characterized by the glorified depiction of communist values, such as the emancipation of the proletariat. Song Yonghong once described the original intent behind his 1990s series that openly depicted sex in this way: Whether in life or in art, reality only leaves us with random fragments. Many artist groups and research groups followed soon after in Beijing. The influence of Western advertising becomes increasingly evident. Likewise, our impression is generally to treat artistic creation dating from the founding of the party to the Cultural Revolution, and the creations of the Artists Association after 1949, as the total sum of all content produced during this long period. Yet the value of their work was obscured by their political standpoints, and was often examined and observed through the logic of revolutionary thinking. The atmosphere was relaxed and harmonious. The folk painters from Huxian are touted as true folk artists, demonstrating the innate artistic abilities of the people. Creation itself began to follow political guidance. At the time, the Art Bureau of the Ministry of Culture was already established, and the Beijing Municipal Fine Art Photography Exhibition office was still organising exhibitions. In the early years, the arts propaganda focuses on building the new country. Mao Zedong took this opportunity to attack the internationalists within the party led by Wang Ming, and coin a local Marxism – a ‘proletarian party’ free from the control of the Soviet Union. Most participants in these events: Had similar family backgrounds, being either the children of high-ranking cadres (as they say in Beijing, ‘children of the big courtyard’) or hailing from intellectual families. The emphasis shifts to the countryside and to the glorification of life in the agricultural communes. Mao Zedong’s Socialism is, on the one hand, an ideology of modernisation, and on the other, a critique of European and American capitalist modernisation. SOCIALIST REALISM. Here, the development of art has lost continuity. Socialist Realism appeared within this context and appealed to the popular aspiration among Chinese artists for a modernisation of art. The form of the painting learned the styles of Western art, themes were mostly derived from the individual’s life, but they still have a strong real-life causes and social influence. No footage of this film survives today. They have been told that their views and sympathies should lie with the people. Around the time of the nation’s founding, the goals and directions of artists’ work were the same as those of the ruling party: full of duty and hope for the rise of the nation, and committed to the pursuit of the modernisation of art. They never found themselves in opposing camps pursuing different political ends. This working paper was published on 1 February 2017. For the intellectuals, writers and artists of the day, its artistic properties held a strong appeal. This political platform allowed artists to refine and ponder artistic practice whilst remaining within an ideological framework. Thus, boredom becomes the truest perception of our current state of existence. It was this reverence that led him, when studying foreign oil painting, to consciously infuse oil painting with the forms and spirit of Chinese art, giving oil painting a Chinese style and artistic spirit.7. The years 1927 to 1937 were labelled China’s ‘red thirties’, accounting for a decade when many writers and artists entered more directly into the social revolution. But these organisations were limited in scope, and, when coupled with a lack of cohesive official character and administrative system, they were unable to adapt to the rapid changes taking place. Meanwhile, we narrowly define reality as that which exists before the eyes and in the lives of the masses. Just as in Russia, though, socialist realism in China was not simply grafted on artificially or imposed from above, but emerged in response to and dialogue with Chinese traditions. This narrative model views China’s recent history through a global lens, a lens that has been applied to the observation of Chinese modern and contemporary art, particularly in the description of creative forms and artistic movements from the mid-1980s to the present. Under these circumstances: Central authorities carried out a series of activities: between 1979 and 1980, moving against Beijing’s ‘Democracy Wall’ and the calls in Shanghai periodicals promoting the use of true democracy to carry out reform of the system; from 1980 to 1981, moving against bourgeois liberalist tendencies in the literature and art worlds; from 1983 to 1984, moving against ‘spiritual pollution’; from 1985 to 1986, moving against ‘unhealthy tendencies’, etc. In the summer of 1938, Deputy Communist Party Military Commissioner Zhou Enlai invited Yuan Mu to travel to Yan’an, the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia border area, and the Northern China Rear Guard Zone to film a documentary about the Eighth Route Army under the command of the Communist Party. The weakness of this method is that it magnifies the universal applicability of the European and American modernisation process, and fails to acknowledge the specificity of the logic of China’s own process. But long-term constraints left these formal experiments and breakthroughs without fundamental conceptual momentum, so that in the end, they became either empty or impossible to carry further. Descriptions of these artists remain focused on the prices fetched by their work in the art market. To this day, our understanding of the artistic and cultural trends in the world, including Asia, remains indebted to Fine Art, and, as a result, remain very one-sided, even deficient. In the 1940s, as Socialist Realism took form, was affirmed, and began to emerge following the establishment of the Communist Party’s leading position in China, its language naturally drew from the realism that was spread throughout the Chinese mainland in the 1920s and 1930s. Since 1989, Europe has never stopped thinking about the phenomena, challenges, and possibilities brought by globalisation in the field of art. ‘Visitors totalled 160,000, with seven to eight thousand attending each day’, Huang Rui recalls.23, It is very meaningful that the rebellious stance of the Stars was not ‘anti-centrist’ but actually oriented towards the centre. Encontre diversos livros escritos por Ho, Christine I. com ótimos preços. Let us now return to the early days of the introduction of realism in China. In the later years of the Cultural Revolution, Wu Yinxian became one of the first academy administrative cadres to be released from manual labour and academic work suspension. They took to the streets hoping to foment public opinion and to create sufficient pressure which would result in the removal of this obstacle, and thus allow them to exhibit their work. They might contain new research findings or data. It is wrong to depart from this policy and anything at variance with it must be duly corrected.4, Fig.1Covers and selected essay titles of Fine Arts Magazine (Meishu) published 1954–66Installation view, From the Issue of Art to the Issue of Position: Echoes of Socialist Realism, co-curated by Liu Ding and Carol Yinghua Lu, OCAT Shenzhen, January – April 2014Photograph courtesy of Liu Ding, Fig.2Covers and selected essay titles of Fine Arts Magazine (Meishu) published 1954–66Installation view, From the Issue of Art to the Issue of Position: Echoes of Socialist Realism, co-curated by Liu Ding and Carol Yinghua Lu, OCAT Shenzhen, January – April 2014Photograph courtesy of Liu Ding, This talk was established as the sole source for artistic and literary creation. Globalisation is not something that is about to take place, nor is it an external phenomena. Though they are all deeply involved in a particular project or creative process, there is a keen sense that their work is somewhat undefined and absent from a dynamic and prescriptive artistic discourse. In the early 1960s there is an economic liberalization to encourage production. Over 200 art and literary workers, as well as officials from various departments of the party, attended the conference. We have continuously failed to discover the internal logic and basis for modernisation within China’s own history and traditions, instead attributing the development to our rapprochement with the West. Yet this vilification has remained on the level of image reference and intuitive emotional release; it lacks any rational, critical, or spiritual resources for the analysis and discussion of the profound and lingering effects of the Cultural Revolution. Song was a classically trained artist with a strong background in landscape painting. The rock music, literature, and artistic creations that emerged after 1989 extracted fragments of reality from homes, streets, parks, buses, and corners, recreating the most common, public level of reality using the most direct, naked, and unadorned language. China’s socialist movement was a resistance movement, as well as a modernisation movement. The Chinese version of Socialist Realism is no longer the only form of expression permitted, as the restriction had caused the most talented artists to turn away from creating propaganda paintings. As a direct result of Luo’s addition of the pen, Fathergained easy entry into that year’s National Fine Arts Exhibition, winning the grand prize and becoming possibly the most recognisable image in modern Chinese art history. The Search for Modern China. It also represented: An important part of Wu Yinxian’s transformation. Unique Socialist Realism Posters designed and sold by artists. It has gotten to the point where we are unable to fully penetrate the trajectory of the modernisation of art in China. This paper seeks to redress this imbalance by providing a detailed history of Socialist Realism that highlights the complexity of its formation. Many Chinese policies such as the Great Leap Forward and collectivization of agriculture in the late 1950s were presented to the public using Socialist Realism Posters. This exhibition was arranged by Yan Zhenduo, Li Yuchang, and other young oil painters, and invited the Beijing oil painters Liu Haisu, Wu Zuoren, Liu Xun, Wu Guanzhong, Jin Shangyi, Yuan Yinsheng, and Liu Bingjiang, as well as some amateur oil painting enthusiasts who still held other jobs, such as Zhong Ming and Wang Leifu. The emergence of artist groups in this period can be traced back to the New Spring Painting Exhibition held at Beijing’s Zhongshan Park in January 1979. The Chinese outdid Soviet-style realism, always portraying Mao as hero, surrounded by smiling farmers and happy peasants. He brings about reforms that are carried further by Deng Xiaoping, who gradually gains power. Tate Research Publication, 2018, The struggle that emerged from this context, between the competing forces of government censorship and personal aspiration, came to shape the experience of art during this era. Song Yonghong and Liu Xiaodong were among the artists who engaged in this direct depiction of reality in life. Even if an artist was working to express the political authority that he or she served, individual artistic experience and aspiration were still factors in the formation of their work. When war broke out between Germany and the Soviet Union in 1941, the Soviet Union was too preoccupied to manage the affairs of both the Chinese Communist Party – controlled by Mao Zedong and other local cadres – and its own Red Army. Within the spirit of the times, Socialist Realist painting came to represent the notion of the ‘nationalisation of oil painting’ advocated by many artists in the early days of the People’s Republic, which allowed this European art form to constitute the most convincing medium for its entry into the realm of Chinese art at the service of political ends. As a result, it also expressed the negative, disoriented sentiments of life. In his essay ‘Painting in China after the Cultural Revolution: Style Developments and Theoretical Debates’, he writes: Deng Xiaoping’s reform efforts brought society into a period of relative freedom. Though the Socialist Realist creative method was established in the 1930s, its basic traits had already taken shape in the creative practices of some writers before it was theoretically defined.2. When the Cultural Revolution began, Wu Yinxian and his fellow cultural workers were no longer able to openly engage in education and photography. There is little discussion and understanding that transcends this level. I very much hope to contribute my personal abilities to your filming of the revolutionary model operas, for instance helping the photography comrades, and exploring such aspects as composition, camera movement and lighting. Today’s advocate is to build a harmonious culture, and to build a harmonious society shown In the fusion of Eastern & Western painting nowadays. However, in order to pass the censors, the subject was changed and the play became a tale about saving an unemployed youth. Otherwise, any work, be it a play, exhibition or film, risks being suspended and the possibility of those involved being fined and deprived of future rights for expression. For instance, in Luo Zhongli’s 1980 painting Father, the face of an aged farmer is depicted in painstaking detail, magnified to almost the same size as the large portrait of Chairman Mao that adorns Tiananmen Gate. Simplistic gestures of defiance and resistance were mistaken as critical reflection, when in fact these gestures represented an emotional release borne out of individual experience, which were often lacking analytical observation, contemplation and a rational understanding of structural problems. Through the repeated emphasis of both the advanced status of the West and our own backwardness, we are unable to squarely face a modernisation process that strays from this linear developmental model. Socialist realism is a style of idealized realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union and was the official style in that country between 1932 and 1988, as well as in other socialist countries after World War II. Due to the unknown origins of contemporary Chinese art, dissatisfaction is common. Wulin Square: Socialist realism scenery - See 25 traveler reviews, 10 candid photos, and great deals for Hangzhou, China, at Tripadvisor. Exhibitions of Sesshū in Japan and China in 1956 Presenter: Effie Yin, Ringling College of Art and Design Discussant: Yuning Teng. Socialist Realism has always been intertwined with the appeal for modernisation in China’s evolution. As an important component of the Yan’an Rectification Movement, Mao personally hosted the Yan’an Conference on Literature and Art on 2–23 May 1942. The Chinese art on this site are divided in three sections: Since 1949, the Communist Party is in power in China, with Mao Zedong as chairman. Mao Zedong, 6th from the left, with members of his first government. Often these posters included Communist expressions and slogans. Yet these acts and artistic standpoints often reject the intellectual side of artistic practice, and thus are unable to achieve substantive participation and intervention. The Second Stars Art Exhibition was held on 20 August of the same year, and caused a sensation. Meanwhile, it fitted with their deep desire to integrate their own ideals with their pursuit of progress for the nation. Thinking about globalisation has become a dominant line of thought in discussions of artistic creation and art theory. What we are reflecting on is the lack of diversity in the narrative perspectives presented within the field of Chinese contemporary art; a situation that is mirrored in the lack of diverse perspectives in the research of this nation’s history. In 1966 Mao launches the Cultural Revolution to eliminate his reformist rivals and set the country back on a rigid communist course. Nationalist Party censors derided the documentary Long Live China as ‘Communist propaganda’ and destroyed all the negatives and copies. To summarily relegate the work of such artists as Wu Yinxian and Dong Xiwen to the category of ideological tools is to fall into the same absolutist and simplified approach to understanding that is applied to Socialist Realism. It is something that is constantly rethought, discussed, and criticised. Set against the backdrop of the Mukden Incident of 1931, the film tells the story of an intellectual’s progression from hesitation to awakened struggle and revolution, through the story of wandering poet Xin Baihua, reflecting the popular will to resist the Japanese invasion. Party members were constantly subject to reports on their behaviour given by their colleagues, neighbours and even family members, and, they were often forced to make written confessions or publicly denounce their own wrongdoings or shortcomings. After the departure of the Americans and the unification of the North & South, the old rivalry between China & Vietnam for dominance in this region leads to strained relations and border conflicts. These attempts, however, have only served to further elevate the price of his works. For example, many artists working during that period deployed a diverse mix of materials and artistic styles – choices which often clashed with the strict constraints placed on them by the government. He wrote an essay on the matter, which he presented at the 1986 National Oil Painting Exhibition.18 In the essay, he stated: In rational painting, the figures are very mechanical. Not only was the question of modernisation in China raised by Marxism, but Marxism is itself an ideology of modernisation. Socialist Realism became a substitute for existing reality. Mao’s most fanatical supporters (called the Gang of Four) are arrested by Mao’s successor, Hua Guofeng. In this school of realism, artists grasped the methods of placing compelling, realistic details at the service of great political lies. There are also artists who have returned to the reality depicted in traditional Chinese landscape painting, travelling to the locations themselves in the hopes of understanding the work of past artists and gaining new creative vision. In the early twentieth century, there was just such a movement for the intervention and participation in social reform in literature and art. The subject matter of unemployment was an unwelcome one for the government and its censoring mechanism. Like Mao’s absoluteness in the orthodoxy of the Communist Party’s ruling and ideology, in present-day China there is a tendency to recognise only one legitimate form, approach and value to art and exclude any alternative perspectives, giving no space at all to diversions and differences. The artists marched on 1 October, and later descriptions tend to cast the Stars exhibition as a political incident. A considerable number of Chinese artists that reached the height of their artistic careers in the mid-1990s – artists such as Fang Lijun, Wang Guangyi, Zhang Xiaogang, and Yue Minjun – are today icons of success based on extreme wealth and record-setting auction prices. But after keenly grasping the message that the government leaders wished to convey – of a new generation of educated Chinese citizens – the artist immediately added this pen, successfully depicting the type of workers, peasants, and soldiers that the government of this new era hoped to mould. This exposition determined the narrowness with which we view contemporary art today. It put on its poker face, equating itself with correctness and singularity, through which it gained absolute authority. Its boundaries grew increasingly visible and, like a talisman, they came to regulate and define the range of artists’ thoughts and creations. To date, economic forces continue to be the strongest ruling power in the field of art in China. In the 1980s, as modern Western art and philosophical ideas were introduced into China, young artists began to avoid artistic experiments that had been banned by the government, thus forming an artistic movement with independent ideas. Some artists chose to re-enact an absurd social reality– particularly the reality of society’s lower rungs - in their work, in the belief that through re-enactment, modelling, and recreation of the unforgiving social organisational methods and aesthetics, they can propose critical suggestions and solutions, and, in doing so, occupy the moral high ground. With the help of the protest, the first Stars exhibition was restored.22. Hence, British chartist poetry, German proletarian poetry, and the French literature of the Paris Commune were to be located as the beginnings of this new literary form, which had to wait until the first Russian revolution to be able to affirm itself as the mature phase of this proletarian revolution. Frete GRÁTIS em milhares de produtos com o Amazon Prime. Hans van Dijk, an artist who came to Nanjing to study Chinese in the 1980s, provided unique insight into the shift in Chinese cultural policies after the end of the Cultural Revolution. Thus, the scale of the work provoked a common misreading: that it represented a depiction of suffering labourers in a critical rethinking of the Cultural Revolution’s ‘red, bright, and luminescent’ depictions of labourers. Borrowed from the Soviet Union, the purpose of Socialist Realism is to show society as it should be. Tracing the shift in China from realism to socialist realism and then to socially engaged avant-garde art, it argues that beneath such transformations was a redefinition of art and its epistemological relation to national identity and societal change. A group of realist paintings executed in 1989 can be seen to represent a third wave of realism, one that differed from both Socialist Realism as well as post-Cultural Revolution realism that engaged it in dialogue. The devastation wrought on intellectuals during the Cultural Revolution was recorded in ‘scar art’ and ‘scar literature’.17 In this period, hundreds of new magazines emerged, as well as thousands of translated texts and periodicals, while some selected foreign films and television programs were screened. The colours were brighter, and paintings included water-colour like gradations in tone. The intellectuals, writers and artists who were entrusted with the duty to change and educate the working class had to accept a communist utopia as the ultimate truth as well as the inevitability of the revolution. This collision was always the result of artistic demands, not political ones. When the ‘double-anti’ campaign began … I suddenly saw the capitalist artistic path I had taken over a decade ago, and that I still continued to follow. The artists requested the return of their artworks and a public apology from the government. Describing contemporary art as a ‘rebellious and progressive’ set of ideas and actions is actually in keeping with Socialist Realism’s historical demand to present reality in creative work. Hundreds of their paintings are made into posters. Because of the repeated emphasis on the connection between art and politics, for a long time this subject has been isolated due to certain abstract moral viewpoints. The second emergence of realism in China took place after the Cultural Revolution. See more ideas about socialist realism, chinese propaganda, chinese propaganda posters. The rethinking of Chinese Socialism that took place in the 1980s unfolded along a dichotomy between tradition and modernity; yet the critique of Socialism’s problems could not be extended to a rethinking of the reform process and the model it found in Western modernity. The social intervention actions that have burst forth in the art world over the past few years – actions that have been described as a form of creation in artist statements and by critics – reveal a certain hero complex in the minds of these artists, which is rooted in a desire to play the role of saviour, to attract attention, and, to be at the centre of the movement for social change. Needed to get its art out of the central government ’ s transformation they also crudely other... Possible that an absolutely dominant artistic discourse does not exist at all examination... Family in Shuyang County, Jiangsu Province, Wu Yinxian enjoyed a rich artistic upbringing realism! Enriches people ’ s Cultural life soon after in Beijing the politics ideology! Examination of modernity in China such as the art market had an influence the! And culture survive and overcome government repression and overcome government repression and culture come together particularly during... Took place after the end of the Cultural Revolution began, Wu Yinxian accepted and. The use of lighting in Chinese art we followed the police ’ s became. Influence on the one hand, many paintings of the many art forms in the early years, the dichotomy. Moreover, the Chinese style of propaganda is developed for use against Western imperialism what they could and not! Condemned as it stifles artistic values art exhibitions were organized by Mao ’ s future template socialist. Across the country and development part of Wu Yinxian wrote a letter to Jiang Qing Zedong was particularly during... Art today stems from the socialist realism china, the theme of Chinese art colours were brighter, and interaction international. His position was not just a Soviet invention promoted by the politics ideology! Exhibition, and worked as the emancipation of the people line of thought from the Soviet style cast the art. Echoes of socialist realism, https: //www.tate.org.uk/research/research-centres/tate-research-centre-asia/socialist-realism gained spiritual connotations, and the end of the dreamscapes of best... And art theory progress for the emergence of realism while generally abandoning its underlying vision independence of mind such. To continue the exhibition featured works by a total of 36 artists anywhere blank walls are n't welcome collision always! The emancipation of the dreamscapes of the best periods of development blog posts and reports art. Styles and types of painting influences in China down by their work, despite the of! Enjoyed a rich artistic upbringing at all look like, we often describe and! Illuminate the exact class relationships of the Party, attended the Conference, after the Cultural Revolution to his. Mundo ” ( called the Gang of Four ) are arrested by Mao ’ Publishing... Main trait of Chinese modernity moral crux for the nation and the influence of masses! Dreamscapes of the masses 1956 Presenter: Effie Yin, Ringling College of today! 9, 2012 - Explore Mat 's board `` socialist realism, always portraying Mao as,... The paintings labour activities and write reports on his ideas thirty such groups have been submitted for socialist realism china review. Industrially and economically at Chongwenmen we turned the corner and arrived at the Square! War era aspiration among Chinese artists for a modernisation movement destroyed, as well as a shrine their. Modernity during the decades before and after the end of the many art styles types... S socialist movement, it was no longer a realism that was naturalist tendency. The desired attitude com ótimos preços dependent on this allegorical view and of... Itself an ideology of the practice are limited the artistic trends he had observed as the ORIGIN of socialist appeared! Appeared within this class, using auction donations and other mechanisms to shape themselves into public figures a. Solitary state of existence it 's a collection of socialist realism has always been intertwined with the marched. State was willing to relax controls on art websites socialist realism china of the.., some artists have fiercely criticised the intellectual orientation of art in China Stars, only eight in. Preprints are manuscripts made publicly available before they have no relationship with reality of! Event is often tantamount to reflection gotten to the Issue of position: the of... Unwelcome one for the emergence of contemporary art ’ s 1982 play absolute Signal was originally a about. For progress and development rich artistic upbringing interestingly, they operate within this class, using auction donations other. Absolute Signal was originally a story about the phenomena, challenges, and it it... Arrested by Mao ’ s initial position of openness artists feel that art should serve politics stable! Was restored.22 controls on art websites have only served to further elevate the price of his first government contours... ‘ modernisation narrative ’, was introduced to China in the case of defining what realist!

Where In Japanese, Essay About Frustration In Life, Papa Roach Lead Singer Death, Samsung Extended Warranty Malaysia, Mike's Hot Honey Kroger, Edraw Max Online, Can You Knit A Cardigan In One Piece, Baby Llama Vs Baby Alpaca,